In 1775, the Continental Congress established a Post Office and appointed Benjamin Franklin its Postmaster-General.
1788: New York became the 11th state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
1908: U.S. Attorney General Charles J. Bonaparte ordered creation of a force of special agents that was a forerunner of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
1945: The Potsdam Declaration warned Imperial Japan to unconditionally surrender, or face "prompt and utter destruction." The same day, Winston Churchill resigned as Britain's prime minister after his Conservatives were soundly defeated by the Labour Party; Clement Attlee succeeded him.
1956: Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal.
1971: Apollo 15 was launched from Cape Kennedy on America's fourth successful manned mission to the moon.