In 1910, lab technician Vivien Thomas was born. Despite having no education past high school, Thomas is best known for helping to develop the "blue baby" operation at Johns Hopkins in the '40s. Thomas went on to serve for 35 years as supervisor of the surgical research laboratories at Hopkins. (Richard Childress, Baltimore Sun photo, 1976)
1533: The last Incan king of Peru, Atahualpa, was murdered on orders of Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro.
1957: South Carolina Sen. Strom Thurmond (then a Democrat) ended a filibuster against a civil rights bill after talking for more than 24 hours.
1966: The Beatles concluded their fourth American tour with their last public concert, at Candlestick Park in San Francisco.
2005: Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast near Buras, La.; the resulting floods devastated the city of New Orleans. The storm killed more than 1,800 people.
Compiled by Laura Lefavor and Paul McCardell.