For two years, the crew of the USSJeannette was trapped in ice north of the Bering Sea. The sailors staged musicals, played football, ate seal meat (which they dubbed "arctic turkey") and even performed surgery on the eye of a crew member afflicted with syphilis.
Then, in June 1881, the real adventure began: The Jeannette sank. The men loaded their provisions onto dog sleds and began the trek to Siberia, some 1,000 miles away.
Journalist Hampton Sides tells the story of the Jeannette's star-crossed expedition in his latest book, "In the Kingdom of Ice."
Sides spent more than three years poring over thousands of pages of records kept by the ship's captain, letters, diary entries and testimony from the 13 men who survived the brutal journey. The book weaves together tales of the opulent newspaper owner who conceived of the journey, the ship's brave and methodical captain, George Washington De Long, and letters from De Long's increasingly despondent young wife.
Sides, whose past works include the 2010 New York Times best-seller, "Hellhound on His Trail," will speak to the Baltimore Sun Book Club at 7 p.m. Tuesday.
We asked Sides to discuss "In the Kingdom of Ice."
How did you learn about George Washington De Long and the voyage of the Jeannette?
I got an assignment [for National Geographic] to write about a Norwegian explorer who had tried to reach the North Pole by duplicating the voyage of the Jeannette, but doing it in adifferently designed ship. When I came home, I realized that the Jeannette was a huge story in its day, very well-known, but completely forgotten in the United States.
Why was there a fascination with the North Pole during this time?
A lot of people didn't think it was inhospitable. It was one of the few places left where no man had ever been — this mythic place at the top of the world. And there was a commercial aspect. For the United States, we had recently purchased Alaska from the Russians, and people wanted to know what was north of Alaska. Also, these guys like De Long wanted some personal glory. If you could become the first person to teach the top of the world, you would be famous forever.
I spent about 31/2 years on it. De Long's journals were an important source; he wrote religiously every day, no matter what the conditions were like. [George] Melville [the ship's engineer] wrote a big fat anvil of a book. All of the survivors gave testimony before Congress and before a naval inquiry. Several of the other survivors kept journals, and several of the people who died kept journals.
Which places did you visit?
They end up making landfall at the Arctic coast of central Siberia at a place called the Lena River Delta. I wanted to go there because I had heard about a monument to the Jeannette expedition that was there called America Mountain. It's in the middle of nowhere, 400 miles above the Arctic Circle in a completely uninhabited, restricted area. I wanted to see some of the villages as well that figured into the story. I also went to the Bering Strait and to Wrangel Island, an island off the northeast coast of Siberia in the Chukchi Sea. I went on a Russian ice breaker, smashed through a bunch of ice and finally got to this island, which was almost impossible to get to. I spent about a week exploring that place. I thought it was important to see at least some of the Arctic and try to understand why these people are so addicted to it. Those who seem to love it keep coming back for more.
I don't need to go back to it repeatedly, but there is something about the atmosphere, the weird tricks of light, all the mist and fog and the sound of the ice constantly talking to you. It's screaming and screeching and laughing and sighing. I had this sense that the ice was a big monolithic slab and just sitting there silently, but it is moving constantly and crashing into each other. It was really one of the most alien environments I've ever been in.
How did the crew bear being stuck in the ice for two years?
They really didn't suffer that much during those two years. They had a lot of food, plus they supplemented it with a lot of hunting — they had plenty of polar bear and walrus and seal. De Long was smart enough to know that they would go crazy if they didn't have a lot to do. He gave them a regimen, daily exercise on the ice, football and other sports. They had to take hourly measurements of the ice and fill the log books with meteorological data. They had plays and musicals and entertainment of various sorts. They had an organ and a printing press. But they were going slowly crazy from boredom and monotony.
Did they get sick of each other?
There was a meteorologist who had this terrible propensity for making puns, bad puns usually, and after two years, as you can imagine, the whole crew wants to wring his neck.
Everyone in America knew about the Jeannette. It was a national endeavor. When they left from San Francisco, more than 10,000 people came to see them off. There was such expectation and hope — this young aspiring nation trying to compete with the European powers and show what we can do. [Thomas] Edison's lights were on board and [Alexander Graham] Bell's telephones. Two years later, when the news begins to trickle out of Siberia that something terrible had happened, the nation was equally fascinated and saddened. The survivors came home as heroes, and those who didn't make it were brought home and described as martyrs to science.