However, it's clear that more than a decade of mandated standardized testing in Baltimore and nationally has failed to meaningfully reduce educational inequality. As the Network for Public Education, a public school advocacy organization, recently described, "we know that high-stakes standardized tests, rather than reducing the opportunity gap, have been used to rank, sort, label, and punish students of color. This fact has been amply demonstrated through the experience of the past thirteen years of No Child Left Behind's (NCLB) mandate of national testing in grades 3-8 and once in high school. The outcomes of the NCLB policy shows that test score achievement gaps between African American and white students have only increased, not decreased. . . . Further, the focus on test score data has allowed policy makers to rationalize the demonization of schools and educators, while simultaneously avoiding the more critically necessary structural changes that need to be made in our education system and the broader society."