Consider that in the 15th century printed books were the hot new toy—revolutionizing the distribution, style, and form of information. In "From Pen to Press: Experimentation and Innovation in the Age of Print," at the Walters Art Museum through April 12, there is a giant Apostolic Constitution that was printed on animal parchment about five years after Gutenberg's Bible (1460). Moveable type was still cutting edge at the time, but the typeface, scale, scribal abbreviations, and parchment quality of the printed book make it nearly indistinguishable from the 13th-century manuscript neighboring it in the case. The book was created to look like a handwritten manuscript.
The printer maintained the aesthetic tradition of Apostolic Constitutions so that the documents felt legit, because readers and publishers alike preferred something that appeared handwritten over the contemporary "look" of 15th-century style printed books.
At the Walters, I see a man snapping pics of rare books with his paperback-size iPhone 6 Plus and I get to wondering whether we—those of us hesitant to let go of our dad's old copy of "Franny and Zooey" in favor of the free download on Kindle—might embrace digital devices more quickly if they looked and felt more like books.
Well yes, that is exactly what would happen, what is currently happening, and what happened before. "From Pen To Press" is not simply a heralding party for The Book. Instead, it feels more an answer to one very real contemporary question: What will happen to the book if there is something "better"?
Still, after centuries, the selection of Henry Walters' rare books and manuscripts that make up "From Pen to Press" are in excellent condition. They include religious texts and mythological texts with wacky illustrations and fiction. One book entitled "The Art of Dying" offers the best methods for entering heaven.
There are grammar books made by leading publisher of the Venetian Renaissance Aldus Manutius, books with full margins and pages of meticulous metalcut prints, often colorful illuminations and miniatures, books printed with early italics, geometrical diagrams, even an extremely rare illustrated manuscript of Virgil's poems. Patrons and owners often left their own marks on the volumes as we do today, annotating and underlining passages of interest.
The fragility of these documents is a serious concern for Lynley Herbert, Assistant Curator of Rare Books and Manuscripts at the Walters and the chief curator of "From Pen to Press." Museum light, excessive oxygen, and stress on the binding can contribute to the books' gradual slump. Most vulnerable are the illuminations and woodblock prints. After a single page of a printed book is displayed for six months, Herbert explained, the page cannot be exposed for five years.
On Feb. 17, the Walters actually flipped the pages of most every book in the show. "It [is] almost a different exhibition for the second half of the show," Herbert says.
A printed book is, at least at the time that it's manufactured, reproducible, and yet readers were drawn by the uniqueness of a volume, which contained original paintings, human error, and the swooshing and slashing idiosyncrasies of personal handwriting. No two "Divine Comedy" manuscripts were the same. Instead, these objects shifted from a means of distributing information and became items of rare opulence—inconvenient, expensive, and extraordinary—perhaps the destiny of books today.
There are several manuscripts from this period of coexistence in the show, such as the "Book of Hours" manuscript that was commissioned almost 200 years after the printing press (1623); handwritten on parchment and illustrated by a Venetian artist, this book mimics what was contemporary typography, page layout, and page numbers of printed books as closely as possible. (The museum is now bringing all of these eras together as it digitizes its manuscripts collection—and, eventually, its rare books—for free access online, though Herbert notes there is a great deal about a manuscript one cannot understand in digital form.)