This did not start with Sept. 11, as the film suggests. It did not even start with the L.A. riots of 1965—which many believe were the impetus for the first SWAT teams because Daryl Gates, the Los Angeles police chief at the time, took credit for inventing the concept. SWAT's roots date to the 1962 riot in Oxford, Mississippi, over the racial integration of Ole Miss. White mobs overwhelmed National Guardsmen and two people—a reporter and a jukebox repairman—were found shot to death. U.S. Army General Creighton Abrams wrote a paper about that, surmising that American law enforcement needed a robust riot-control capability to maintain order. "We in the Army should launch a major intelligence project ...to identify personalities, both black and white, and develop analyses of the various civil-rights situations," Abrams wrote.