First, it's worth mentioning that the "racial residual" Coates and others are concerned with is real. If Sanders were to somehow get legislation through Congress making universal health care the law of the land, we know that black men, women, and children will disproportionately benefit as black people are disproportionately poor. However, we also know that black people with the same level of education, the same income, the same occupation as other races tend to live shorter lives, and tend to get less quality treatment from doctors. If Sanders were to somehow get legislation through Congress making public colleges like the University of Maryland College Park free, such a policy would benefit black college-age children because they are disproportionately poor. However, we also know that the University of Maryland system, like many state public education systems, is tiered, and because black children are hypersegregated by class and race, they are less likely to receive the type of high school education that will enable them to gain access to the higher-tiered public colleges. Finally, as black activists concerned with anti-black police violence have made crystal clear, while poor people of all backgrounds are more likely to be subject to police violence, black people are overrepresented in the ranks of police victims. A class-based policy here may reduce the overall number of police victims and may give those victimized by police more power to hold police accountable, but black men and women will still be more likely to be victimized by police afterward. This racial residual is real, and is significant.