Once again, Johns Hopkins University topped the list among U.S. universities for spending on research and development, with more than $2.4 billion in expenditures in 2016, according to the latest survey from the National Science Foundation.

The university, which investigates everything from cells to stars, has been atop the field of more than 900 universities for 38 years. It outpaced the second biggest spender, the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, by about $1 billion, largely due to the inclusion of the $1.4 billion budget of Hopkins’ Applied Physics Laboratory.


Hopkins’ R&D spending rose 5.4 percent from 2015 to 2016.

Much of the funding for all the universities comes from federal sources such as the National Institutes of Health and National Science Foundation, funding that increased slightly from 2015 to 2016 after a four-year decline.

The University of Maryland, College Park, was ranked 41st in spending with nearly $540 million in 2016, the latest data available. The University of Maryland, Baltimore was 58th with nearly $400 million; the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, was 168th with about $70 million; the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science was 192nd with about $55 million; the University of Maryland, Eastern Shore was 345th with just over $8 million.

Combined the University of Maryland campuses would have ranked 9th, just ahead of Stanford and behind Harvard.

Among other schools in the state, Morgan State University ranked 295th with $15.7 million; Salisbury University was 342nd with nearly $8.5 million; Towson University was 495th with $2.3 million; St. Mary’s College of Maryland was 715th with $638,000; Maryland Institute College of Art was 776th with $427,000; and Loyola University Maryland was 795th with $382,000.

Other top spenders include the University of Pennsylvania; University of California, San Francisco; and University of Washington, Seattle. All spend more than $1.2 billion.

Total research spending in 2016 by the 902 universities in the survey increased 4.8 percent to more than $71.8 billion from 2015 to 2016. The top 30 universities accounted for 42 percent of the total.