The cleats had "MVP" in bold lettering across the front, reflecting his being awarded the regular-season most valuable player award a day earlier.
When the game started, Newton switched to a less flashy pair of cleats also designed by Under Armour, with whom he signed in 2011 when he turned pro.
The Denver Broncos beat the Panthers, 24-10 in Sunday’s game.
Newton’s gold shoes corresponded with the golden anniversary of the Super Bowl, which was first held after the 1966 season.
Under Armour is selling a limited number of the gold shoes for $500 apiece. The cleats will be autographed, and half of the proceeds donated to The Cam Newton Foundation, which aids in youths' education and development.
To mark Newton’s success this season, Under Armour says it "teamed up with recording artist Young Jeezy to record a custom track entitled 'Hit Um,' inspired by Newton and his career."