I am sure you are aware of the excellent alternatives that are widely available for medical training. These humane alternatives are not only great teaching tools, most medical students also prefer them. In 2007, the American Medical Student Association ("AMSA") passed a resolution amending its "Principles Regarding Vivisection in Medical Education" to strongly encourage the replacement of animal laboratories with non-animal alternatives in medical education. The AMSA resolution demonstrates that medical students are increasingly aware of the ethical problems surrounding the use of live animals as teaching tools. In order to meet the ethical and educational needs of your students, we encourage Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine to explore these alternatives as a means of removing live animals from its classrooms. Further, the use of animals in classrooms violates the spirit and letter of the Federal Animal Welfare Act ("AWA"). Medical schools are included in the definition of "research facility" in the AWA, and are therefore subject to its provisions. Further, the live animals used by your institution's classrooms come within the protection of that statute, which expressly defines protected "animals" to include "any live or dead dog, cat, monkey (nonhuman primate mammal), guinea pig, hamster, rabbit or such other warm blooded animal . . . intended for use, for research, testing, experimentation, or exhibition purposes, or as a pet." The Federal statute requires minimization of pain and distress to the subject animal and the use of non-animal alternatives when possible. In light of the availability of superior, non-animal alternative technologies in medical school education, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine arguably violates the principles set forth in the AWA by using pigs in its classrooms.