The camper only wanted to use the bathroom in the middle of the night. But it was dark at Olympic National Park in Washington and the man did not realize he was near a cliff. "He fell off a cliff over 60 feet into a pile of rocks," said ranger Dan Pontbriand, now the chief ranger at Isle Royale National Park in Michigan.The camper screamed for his wife to help. She climbed to the bottom of the pit and found he had two broken legs, ankles and feet. She stabilized his condition and hiked to the nearest ranger's station for help.

Along the way, the woman left notes on the trail asking others to call for help. A passer-by found the note and called 911 before she reached the ranger's station. "She did everything right to save her husband," Pontbriand said. "She was in good shape, got him in stable condition, hiked out and left a bunch of clues around."

Other outdoor adventurers aren't always so sure how to respond during an emergency. Pontbriand said too many hikers assume a cell phone or location device will save the day (not always the case). Others wander in search of help and become lost.

So how should you respond if there's an emergency outdoors? The answer depends on where you are, your surroundings and whether you're alone. Here are ways to handle several outdoor emergencies.

Head injury in a remote location

Sit in an open area and remain still to avoid raising your blood pressure. Send a partner for help. Partners should leave behind extra clothing and supplies, Pontbriand said.

If alone, hug a tree and wait for rescuers to find you. Solo exercisers are advised to tell friends or family about their plans so they can call for help if a return deadline is missed.

"Don't keep it a secret," said Alan Russell with the National Academy of Sports Medicine. "If you're going to run or walk in the park, hike in the mountains, let someone know. Say, 'I'm going to hike from 10 to noon, I expect to be back around 1, I'll check in at that time.'"

Heavy bleeding in an urban area or populated recreational trail

Enlist the help of passers-by to contact emergency authorities, Russell said.

Wearing an emergency bracelet is advised as first responders can collect basic information such as name, address, blood type and next of kin.

"Those are pretty common with cyclists," Russell said. "I've heard stories of several cyclists who were treated by ID bracelet. They get caught in loose gravel, get knocked off and a car that comes upon them knows what to do with them."

Heavy bleeding in a remote location

An injured person can try to stop the bleeding by applying direct pressure above the wound. If this does not work, the next step is to apply pressure to the artery.

A tourniquet is a last resort as it cuts off blood supply to the rest of the limb. "Everything down limb begins to die," Russell said.

Broken arm or wrist in an urban area or populated recreational trail

Do not try to realign a broken or dislocated bone. Head toward help, Russell said.

"You're going to be uncomfortable but you're going to be fine," Russell said. "It's not comfortable, it's painful, miserable. You're bordering on the edge of shock. It's a little freaky."

Sprained ankle in an urban area or populated recreational trail