Vice Adm. Walter E. "Ted" Carter Jr. saw the effects of extreme weather up close in 2012, when he commanded the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise on a voyage across the Atlantic.
He watched as waves kicked up by Hurricane Sandy crashed onto the carrier's flight deck, 60 feet above the surface of the ocean.
"I saw firsthand what it's like to deal with a storm of that magnitude," Carter said.
Earlier in the mission, he had sent the giant vessel back and forth through the Strait of Hormuz, where the water temperature had crept close to 100 degrees. In those kind of extreme environments, Carter said, it's difficult to carry out military...