The very name "Plum Island" sends shivers down the spines of conspiracy theorists.
Some insist federal researchers on this small slab of land in Long Island Sound are hiding alien bodies; that Nazi scientists helped develop biological weapons there; and that Lyme disease and West Nile virus originated in Plum Island test tubes. (Federal officials, by the way, endlessly deny all such lurid claims. They insist the only thing going on there is research into animal diseases.)
Yet conservationists and nature lovers believe the existence of this super-secretive, somewhat sinister laboratory has preserved one of the Sound's environmental gems. They're convinced the best way to save Plum Island might be to let those hopefully not-so-mad scientists continue their experiments on deadly animal plagues.
All of which helps explain why many environmentalists are so pissed off with a new federal report endorsing the sale of the 840-acre island, which lies just off Long Island's North Fork and about 10 miles from the Connecticut shoreline.
In 2008, Congress ordered that the research lab be closed after a new one is built in Kansas, and that Plum Island be sold. The idea was that money from the sale would help cover the humongous cost — as in $1.14 billion — of constructing the super-secure new facility in Manhattan, Kansas, scheduled for completion in 2019.
A Bird Preserve?
The 408-page draft report put on the table in early July by the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) lists sale of the island to some private developer or organization as the "preferred alternative."
"The report completely ignored any economic and ecological value the island has to our region," insists Adrienne Esposito, executive director of the Long Island-based Citizens Campaign for the Environment.
Charles Rothenberger, a lawyer for Save the Sound here in Connecticut, says the report seems to consider the possibility of keeping the island as a nature preserve "almost as an afterthought." He also blasts the federal officials for "not fully analyzing the potential impact of having high-density housing on that site and what it would mean in terms of the natural resources."
Natural resources as in bank swallow colonies, roseate terns (a federally endangered species), common terns (a threatened species), osprey, common eider, nesting areas for piping plovers (another threatened species) and least terns, and rookeries of black-crowned night herons and great egrets. The list of migrating water birds includes scoters, greater and lesser scaup, common goldeneye, buffleheads, red-breasted mergansers, canvasbacks, and bunches of others.
One survey spotted 100 different bird species using the island or its shore waters — a place that could become a bird-geek paradise.
Mammals like harbor and gray seals pull up on the beaches. The waters around the island are playgrounds and feeding spots for finback, minke and humpback whales, juvenile Kemp's Ridley sea turtles (another rare and endangered species), as well as striped bass and summer flounder.
A little history: a lighthouse, hunting for German subs and far-out diseases
The reason this island and its surrounding waters are so incredibly rich in wildlife is that animal-disease-filled federal lab. For nearly six decades, almost the only people allowed on Plum Island were federal researchers and the people guarding and maintaining the 47 buildings there. That left the rest of the island virtually undisturbed for wildlife and plants.
The island has been owned by the federal government since 1826. It was the site of a lighthouse; Fort Terry, a military bastion from the Spanish-American Warera; and a World War II base for hunting German subs in the Sound.
The animal disease research lab was created in 1954 and it's been the target of rumor, speculation and conspiracy theories ever since.
One of the most persistent has been that Lyme disease was developed there as a biological weapon and escaped, only to start infecting folks just across the Sound in Connecticut. Unfortunately, this spy-thriller concept has been debunked by research indicating undiagnosed cases of Lyme disease were occurring at least as far back as the late 1800s.
What actually happens in those laboratories is scary enough. Highly infectious bugs like hoof-and-mouth disease and contagious viruses transmitted by pigs and horses with names like "Nipah" and "Hendra" that can jump to humans are all studied within those sterilized walls.