U.S. schools chief endorses release of teacher data
U.S. Education Secretary Arne Duncan, with students at a summit in Washington last week, favors the use of value-added analysis and the public release of data on teachers' effectiveness. (Chip Somodevilla, Getty Images)
"What's there to hide?" Duncan said in an interview one day after The Times published an analysis of teacher effectiveness in the Los Angeles Unified School District, the nation's second-largest school system. "In education, we've been scared to talk about success."
Duncan's comments mark the first time the Obama administration has expressed support for a public airing of information about teacher performance -- a move that is sure to fan the already fierce debate over how to better evaluate teachers.
Spurred by the administration, school districts around the country have moved to adopt "value added" measures, a statistical approach that relies on standardized test scores to measure student learning . Critics, including many teachers unions and some policy experts, say the method is based on flawed tests that don't measure the more intangible benefits of good teaching and lead to a narrow curriculum. In Los Angeles, the teachers union has called public disclosure of the results "dangerous" and "irresponsible."
Duncan said public disclosure of the value-added results would allow school systems to identify teachers who are doing things right.
"We can't do enough to recognize them, reward them, but -- most importantly -- to learn from them," he said.
California Secretary of Education Bonnie Reiss also weighed in Monday, saying that the state will encourage districts to develop and release value-added scores for teachers.
"Publishing this data is not about demonizing teachers," Reiss said. "It's going to create a more market-driven approach to results."
Reiss said the data would give administrators a better idea of which instructors need professional development. It's unclear how quickly a statewide value-added system could be built, but Reiss said districts, especially the larger ones, should be able to move quickly.
"The data is there," Reiss said.
The comments from Reiss, appointed by a Republican governor, and Duncan, appointed by a Democratic president, show how the use of data for teacher accountability has become a bipartisan issue.
The value-added method tracks a student's performance on standardized tests year after year. Because the student's performance is measured against his or her own record, the method adjusts for many of the differences among students that teachers have no control over.
The Times used the approach to analyze seven years of test scores in math and English to estimate the impact individual elementary school teachers had on their students. The analysis found huge disparities among teachers, sometimes just down the hall from one another. Students with the most effective teachers consistently made huge strides in a single year, despite challenges such as poverty or limited English skills.
Researchers have consistently found that within a school, teacher effectiveness is the single most important factor in a child's ability to learn. But across the country, parents have no access to objective information about teacher effectiveness, and many districts have opted to ignore the data.
Later this month, The Times will publish a database of more than 6,000 elementary school teachers ranked by their ability to improve students' scores on standardized tests, marking the first time such information has been released publicly. Already, roughly 700 teachers have requested and received their scores, enabling them to comment before publication.
The article and announcement of a forthcoming database sparked emotional and divided reaction around the country.
"I thought it was disgraceful," said Diane Ravitch, a former federal education official and author of the bestselling book "The Death and Life of the Great American School System: How Testing and Choice Are Undermining Education." "There was a fundamental meanness about [the story] that turned my stomach."
Ravitch opposes the use of standardized test data to fire teachers or close schools. But if used as one measure of a teacher's effectiveness, she said the data could play a role in identifying and helping struggling teachers.
Her concerns were echoed by the teachers union and in some of the hundreds of public comments made by teachers on The Times' website.