When the great Irish poet William Butler Yeats prayed for some kind of connection to permanence and immortality, his thoughts turned to Byzantine art as the most perfect emblem of the profound, eternal state of creative grace he was after.
He wrote, in "Sailing to Byzantium," of a yearning to encounter and be transformed by the gold-infused religious images of "sages standing in God's holy fire" that define the Byzantine style.
Now Byzantium is sailing to Los Angeles. "Heaven and Earth: Art of Byzantium from Greek Collections," the biggest Byzantine art blockbuster to reach the West Coast, begins a 41/2-month run at the Getty Villa on April 9, along with a smaller related show of illuminated manuscripts at the Getty Center in Brentwood that runs for three months starting March 25.
Whether the 178 works to be on display at the Villa will induce Yeatsian mystical transports is uncertain, but they promise to be an eyeful. The show includes many painted icons or mosaics of figures enveloped in the golden glow that elicited that "God's holy fire" metaphor from the poet.
It's drawn from 34 national collections in Greece and spans more than 1,300 years. The starting point goes back even before the reign of the Roman Emperor Constantine, who decreed Christianity the official state religion and in AD 330 relocated its imperial capital from Rome to the site in present-day Turkey that he named Constantinople.
People in the Byzantine Empire spoke Greek and referred to themselves as "Romans"; the name "Byzantium" — for the capital and the empire it anchored — came into use only later, inspired by Byzantion, the name of the settlement that Greek colonists had established around 500 BC at the future Constantinople.
The dwindling Byzantine empire fell — and the show ends — in 1453, when conquering Ottoman Turks gave the capital its present name, Istanbul.
If Byzantium's artistic signature is the enduring holy aura that Yeats celebrated, the exhibition seeks to explore how art and life were in fact buffeted and changed by historic upheavals over the millennium-plus it surveys.
"It's a rather old trope that Byzantine art looks the same, but it doesn't," said Mary Louise Hart, a Getty curator of antiquities who's overseeing the exhibition at the Villa. "It's a goal of this exhibition to communicate their great diversity of artistic expression over this amount of time."
The show will illustrate how pagan beliefs and their artistic embodiments gave way to Christian ones but continued to exert an influence well into the Christian period.
Perhaps the biggest upheaval of all isn't represented because it can be marked only by a void: Byzantine art went blank for most of the 117-year period from 726 to 843. The culture that had hatched one now-overused word, "icon," gave birth to another, "iconoclast," when religious and imperial authorities enforced an Old Testament prohibition against making "graven images" of living beings.
With considerable success, the iconoclasts set about expunging religiously venerated paintings and images depicting Jesus, Mary and the saints — known as icons in the Eastern Orthodox church.
Another big upheaval came in the 1200s, when Crusaders from France and Venice temporarily ousted the Byzantine rulers for nearly 60 years. The exhibition shows how western European influences seeped into Byzantine art, and how artistic influence also moved in the other direction as Byzantine styles informed early Renaissance painting in Italy.
The show has only three works by artists whose names are known: Andreas Pavia and Andreas Ritzos, who emerged at the end of the Byzantine era. Before then, said Hart, the icon painters were mainly monks who, unlike the more individualistic Italians, considered their work a manifestation of faith rather than an assertion of self.
The show that will educate Angelenos about all that conflict and what it meant for the creation of art was made possible by the end of more than a decade of contention between the Getty Trust and Greek cultural authorities. Relations had reached a low in the mid-2000s when Greece charged Marion True, the L.A. museum's longtime chief antiquities curator, with receiving stolen property in the Getty's 1990s acquisition of an ancient funerary wreath.
True eventually resigned from the Getty, for reasons not directly related to the disputed wreath. The charge against her in Greece was dropped, and the museum returned the wreath and several other previously contested items to Greece.
The hatchet was officially buried in a September 2011 accord in which the Getty and the Greek Ministry of Culture agreed to forge a new "framework of cooperation." The first and very substantial fruit is "Heaven and Earth," whose previous U.S. stop starting last fall was at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., where officials say it was seen by more than 1,400 visitors a day, making it one of the dozen or so most popular exhibitions of the past five years.