Franchisee Luther Mack, who owns 10 restaurants in Nevada, said he routinely uses Ronald more than his allotment and pays out-of-pocket -- $400 to $600 per appearance -- to get more face time. But not too much. "We make sure he's not overused," said Mack, a 30-year franchisee.
Klein persuaded the franchisee to run commercials on the Bozo show to reach out to children. After the kiddie show was canceled in 1963, Klein regrouped with Bozo, then played by Willard Scott, who gave the McDonald's clown his name: Ronald McDonald.
Scott, the longtime weatherman for NBC's "Today" show, donned the first Ronald get-up that year, using a paper cup as a nose and a cardboard tray as a hat. When McDonald's executives wanted to introduce Ronald nationally in commercials, they hired Polakovs to give Ronald a makeover. He designed the white-face clown features and, to represent the Golden Arches, chose a canary-yellow jumpsuit. The red shoes and striped socks reflected the colors of the restaurant.
And that fire-engine-red hair? "It was a ladies wig, actually," recalled the 80-year-old Polakovs, who pulled it off a mannequin in a women's clothing store.
When McDonald's decided to make Ronald a national figure in 1966, the company dumped Scott, fearing it would be hard to find people in each market with Scott's big build, Klein recalled.
"That was a heartbreaker," said NBC's Scott. "I was too fat."
To mass-produce Ronald like its burgers and fries, McDonald's created a guide in 1972 called "Ronald and How." The book, by longtime McDonald's hands Roy Bergold and Aye Jaye, details everything from how to apply makeup to how to behave around children. According to someone close to the company, the book advises Ronalds "never to initiate a hug" with a child.
Instead, Ronalds are to turn slightly to the left and pat the child on the back.
Ronald trainers enforce the rules. At the Ronald conventions, sometimes held in Oak Brook, they inspect Ronalds, according to people who have been in attendance. "You had to pass, and, if you didn't, you would go home without a job," said Earl Chaney of Las Vegas, who played the clown for 20 years. Some simply got Ronald probation.
McDonald's conducts extensive background checks on Ronald candidates, but that hasn't always prevented mishaps. One former Ronald is a vegetarian who has since joined forces with animal-rights group People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals to chide the chain.
"I feel badly about what I've done with young people," said Geoffrey Giuliano, who played Ronald in Canada in the early 1980s. "I was the happy face on something that was horrendous."
Joe Maggard, another former Ronald, pleaded guilty in 1998 to a charge of carrying a concealed weapon in New Hanover County, N.C., and the next year was convicted in county court of making harassing telephone calls posing as a Ronald. The judge ordered him to take anger-management classes.
"I'm one of the bad-boy Ronalds," said Maggard, an actor who portrayed Ronald in the mid-'90s. "Am I a bad guy? No, I'm not a bad guy. Did Ronald get in a little trouble down there? Yes."
McDonald's said that Maggard was a stand-in for Ronald for one commercial shoot, adding that "he is definitely not Ronald McDonald."