Second baseman Brian Roberts has been with the Orioles organization since the team drafted him in 1999. In Mitchell's report, former teammate Larry Bigbie stated that he never saw Roberts use steroids, but said Roberts admitted that he injected himself once or twice in 2003. (Sun photo by Gene Sweeney Jr. /August 18, 2006)
Testing policies and penalties for performance-enhancing drugs:
MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL
At least two annual urine tests administered during and between seasons for anabolic steroids and amphetamines. Positive steroid tests result in a 50-game suspension for a first offense, a 100-game suspension for a second offense and a lifetime ban for a third offense.
Urine tests administered randomly during the season or offseason for anabolic steroids and amphetamines. Players must be tested at least once a year. Four-game suspension for a first positive steroid test, six-game suspension for a second positive test and a full season for a third positive test.
Urine tests administered four times randomly during the season for steroids and amphetamines. Ten-game suspension for a first positive test, 25-game suspension for a second positive, one year for a third and a lifetime ban for a fourth. Congress has criticized the policy for not addressing human growth hormone or designer steroids.
Players subject to a maximum two tests during the season for performance-enhancing drugs. Twenty-game suspension for a first offense, 60-game suspension for a second offense and a lifetime ban for a third offense. Congress has criticized the policy for not requiring annual tests and not including designer steroids.
All Olympic sports adhere to the World Anti-Doping Agency list of banned substances. Athletes can be tested at random while not in competition and at international events. Blood and urine tests are used. First positive results in a minimum two-year suspension and the second in a lifetime ban.
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