Meteorologists are growing increasingly confident that El Nino is brewing — but that doesn't mean they know what kind of weather it might bring Maryland.
The climate phenomenon that brings unusually warm water to the Pacific Ocean off South America with weather repercussions that echo globally is showing signs it may develop later this year.
Climatologists last week predicted greater than 65 percent odds El Nino will develop this summer, up to 80 percent by late fall. Some speculated it could be the strongest in years.
While El Nino is known by many for spurring weather disasters around the globe, it often doesn't do so, meteorologists said.
Still, it could mean another snowy season in Maryland next winter. But before that, it could weaken the summer and fall hurricane season.
Unlike elsewhere in the country and world, El Nino's effects are imprecise and unpredictable in Maryland, despite the hysteria the term can incite, climate researchers said.
"It is a very strong signal, but … in our area the signal is pretty quiet." said Konstantin Vinnikov, acting state meteorologist and a senior research scientist in the University of Maryland department of atmospheric and oceanic science.
The "signal" that climate researchers watch closely is water temperatures along the Equator in the Pacific Ocean, just west of South America.
And they are rising. The latest monthly report from the U.S. Climate Prediction Center released Thursday increased the likelihood of El Nino's occurring this summer from the 50/-0 chance it called for in April.
During normal, or so-called "neutral," conditions — when there is neither an El Nino nor its counterpart, La Nina — warmer waters blown by trade winds pool off the coasts of Australia, Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. That warm water evaporates and rises to create storms and heavy rain.
But when those trade winds weaken, or even reverse, climatologists note that an El Nino may be developing. A conveyor belt of mild, moist air that normally sloshes the warm waters west instead reverses course, allowing them to flow back to the central and eastern Pacific.
Following that warmth across the ocean are the massive storm clouds that rise out of the warm waters, which is what disrupts global weather patterns. That moist air is key energy in developing weather systems.
"When you change the distribution of heat sources, you change the distribution of energy, which tends to readjust the whole system," said Raghu Murtugudde, an oceanic and atmospheric sciences professor at the University of Maryland, College Park.
The shift of that moisture can mean droughts and wildfires for parts of Southeast Asia and Oceania and winter flooding and mudslides for Peru and Ecuador. It can stir a more active tropical cyclone season in the eastern Pacific.
El Nino is known for flattening the jet stream in a way that sends it through the moist central Pacific and straight across the lower third of the United States, funneling wet weather across southern states. That can lead to drier-than-normal weather in the Northwest, extra rain for the arid Southwest, and wet, cool weather for the Southeast.
But Maryland lies somewhat on the edge of that trend, making it more difficult to draw long-term conclusions based on an El Nino forecast. The region's geography between mountains and ocean, with the Chesapeake Bay in the middle, also prevents more dramatic climate fluctuations.
"For better for worse, Maryland is in kind of a lucky spot because we get moderated," said Eric Hohman, assistant state climatologist.
It's difficult to predict climate trends in the state beyond about two weeks out, Vinnikov added.
If there is one thing Marylanders associate El Nino with, however, it's snow.
An analysis by the National Weather Service's Baltimore/Washington forecast office shows that while about 18 inches of snow falls in an average winter in Baltimore, closer to 27 inches fall in an El Nino year. When the El Nino is considered to be of moderate strength, the average surpasses 30 inches, more than under either weak or strong El Nino events.