Md. corn crops suffer in drought
Yield could be cut in half as hot, dry weather takes toll
John Draper has 200 acres in feed corn and estimates he has lost about 40 percent of the crop because of the drought. (Kim Hairston, Baltimore Sun / July 17, 2012)
Yet, with a shot at harvesting about 60 percent of his normal yield, Draper considers himself fortunate.
Drought conditions that have persisted across Maryland are expected to cut this year's corn crop yield in half. The weather also is threatening soybean crops, and driving up prices for all types of grains, squeezing livestock and poultry farmers. That in turn could push up meat and dairy prices at the store.
In the Midwest, the heart of U.S. farming is reeling during what meteorologists are calling the worst drought for the lower 48 states since 1956. President Barack Obama met Wednesday with U.S. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack to discuss the government's response to the drought.
Some lucky Maryland farmers have found themselves in the line of passing showers and thunderstorms, but widespread, soaking rains have been rare in 2012, making crop yields suffer. A mild winter and warm spring got the growing season off to an early start, but dry weather since last fall provided little soil moisture to help crops along.
Rainfall across the state for the first six months of 2012 was the fifth-lowest on record, and it was the lowest on record in Delaware, according to the National Climatic Data Center. At Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, about 14 inches of rain have fallen so far this year, 8 inches short of normal.
"It's going to get ugly this year, I think," said Scott Youse, president of the Maryland Dairy Industry Association board and a Caroline County farmer.
Anne Arundel County, Southern Maryland and the Eastern Shore are in moderate drought conditions, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor. To the north of the Interstate 95 corridor, most of the state is considered abnormally dry.
Those dry zones have fluctuated during the spring and summer, with some portions of the lower Eastern Shore reaching "severe" drought conditions at times, according to the drought monitor. Other times, bouts of rainfall helped return most of the state to normal in recent months.
The Maryland Department of the Environment has the Eastern Shore and rural parts of Central Maryland under a drought watch, based on readings of stream flow, rainfall and groundwater.
According to other measures, the situation is more grave. Much of the Delmarva Peninsula is in severe to extreme drought, according to the Palmer Hydrological Drought Index, which takes into account precipitation totals and temperature.
The timing of recent heat caused crops more suffering. All but three days in July have posted high temperatures of 90 degrees or above at Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport.
In late June or early July, flowery tassels sprout atop corn stalks, spreading pollen in the wind that sticks to the silks of corn ears and pollinates the kernels, said Robert Kratochvil, an associate professor and extension specialist for grain crops at the University of Maryland College Park. The nearly two week stretch of highs in the 90s and 100s baked out what little moisture was in the soil.
"It put the corn at a real disadvantage for even being able to pollinate," Kratochvil said of the heat.
The lack of water meant that when the pollen spread, many corn stalks hadn't even grown ears; other stalks aborted the process since there wasn't enough moisture.
In the week ending July 15, 29 percent of Maryland corn crops and 30 percent of its soybeans were considered in poor or very poor condition, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Most of the corn grown in Maryland is feed corn, used as animal feed, as opposed to sweet corn, a favorite for backyard barbecues.
"Of these last three years, which all have been drought years, this year is the worst," Kratochvil said. "I'm expecting the corn crop, at this point in time, if it's 50 percent of normal production I think we'll be lucky."
The lack of rainfall also raises the risk of fertilizers on corn feed sickening or killing livestock. The Maryland Department of Agriculture is offering farmers free testing of corn and Sudan-sorghum grasses used for animal feed.
Some farmers have gotten lucky with scattered rainfall, though. William Layton, a farmer in Dorchester County, said his crops are in good shape after two decent rains in two weeks. And grapes he grows at Layton's Chance Vineyard and Winery are thriving in the hot weather. But other farmers he knows haven't been as lucky.