Opponents organized "Marriage Sundays" — weekly sermons and teachings focused on persuading churchgoers that a vote against Question 6 would protect the church and show respect for the Bible.

They bought time on African-American radio stations, playing a commercial featuring Martin Luther King Jr.'s niece opposing same-sex marriage.

Baltimore Archbishop William E. Lori also played a role in the opposition, preaching to the state's 1.2 million Catholics and appearing in a television commercial discussing the benefits of "traditional marriage." He wrote a letter urging opposition to gay marriage that was distributed to all of the state's Roman Catholic churches.

But the Maryland Marriage Alliance struggled, often appearing disorganized. It held few public events.

Strategic guidance came from California political consultant Frank Schubert, who ran and won three previous campaigns against same-sex marriage in other states.

Schubert produced commercials that followed a narrative used in the previous campaigns. One highlighted a Vermont innkeeper and his wife who were sued after refusing to hold a gay wedding reception at their hotel. Another featured a Massachusetts couple who were upset when their young son came home with a book that discussed gay marriage.

But opponents had far less money than the other side, and Schubert's were not shown nearly as frequently as the spots produced by Question 6 supporters.



Sun reporters Julie Scharper, Andrea Siegel, Steve Kilar and Michael Dresser contributed to this article.

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