O'Malley will join more than two dozen other state, local and Native American tribal officials on Obama's Task Force on Climate Preparedness and Resilience, which is charged with advising the federal government on strategies to deal with the effects of climate change on local communities.
O'Malley is one of eight governors on the panel, all of them Democrats except for Republican Eddie Calvo of the island territory of Guam.
The Maryland governor released a statement calling it an honor to be chosen for the task force.
"Maryland is among the states most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, including severe weather and sea-level rise. We have an obligation to do all we can to protect our land, infrastructure, and most importantly our citizens, and to make sure we are safe and prepared," O'Malley said in a statement.
O'Malley, who has openly flirted with a run for president in 2016, served as one of the chief surrogates for Obama during the 2012 campaign. As governor, he has supported policies intended to help mitigate the effects of rising temperatures.