The Common Core State Standards Initiative is a uniform set of benchmarks children across the country must meet. Here's a sampling of what students must master at a certain age.
A complete list of standards is available at corestandards.org.
• Know number names and the count sequence
• With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text
• Read common high-frequency words by sight (i.e. the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does)
• Add and subtract within 20
• Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses
• Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic and provide some sense of closure
• Work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication
• Identify the main topic of a multi-paragraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text
• Use collective nouns, form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (i.e. feet, children, teeth, mice, fish)
• Multiply and divide within 100
• Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters
• Decode multisyllable words
• Understand decimal notation for fractions and compare decimal fractions