The Senate had passed identical measures on Tuesday and went into session only briefly on Wednesday to accept the House's work and formally adjourn.
Several Montgomery House Democrats broke ranks, however, in part because more then 40 percent of the additional money raised through the income tax will come from their county.
The special session did come with some notes of irony. Democrats, who overwhelmingly voted in favor of the original budget bill, were scrambling to replace it. Meanwhile, the "doomsday" budget won high praise from Republicans, few of whom voted for it in the regular session.
The most-quoted person in the debate by far was Democratic Comptroller Peter Franchot, who distributed a letter before the session opposing the tax increase. Several GOP delegates gleefully read portions of Franchot's message in making their case that taxes shouldn't be increased in a weak economy.
O'Malley has said he might call a second special session this year to deal with a possible expansion of gambling in Maryland.
The budget deal
•Income tax rates will increase 1/4 to 3/4 of a percentage point for individuals making more than $100,000 and couples making more than $150,000.
The same taxpayers will see a phase-out of personal exemptions.
Deal averts more than $500 million in spending cuts in such areas as K-12 schools, higher education, Medicaid, law enforcement and state employee raises would be averted.
Taxes will increase on some tobacco products other than cigarettes, including small cigars and smokeless tobacco. Premium cigars are exempt.
Part of the cost of teacher pensions will shift from the state to counties over a four-year phase-in period.