Seventy years ago this morning, Bill Swanner crawled through hell.
It was still dark when the 19-year-old infantryman joined the more than 150,000 Allied soldiers making the secretive passage out of England for Normandy. Dawn was breaking when he dropped into the water short of Omaha Beach.
Now he was on the sand, in the smoke, crawling past the mines and through the corpses, a 50-pound water-cooled machine gun in his hands, pushing through withering German fire to get to the hedgerows beyond the beach.
D-Day, the long-anticipated Allied invasion of German-occupied France, had begun. All sides understood that the fighting in the weeks and months to come would decide the war in Europe — and the future of the world.
But on the morning of June 6, 1944, Swanner's thoughts were focused on the present.
"I kind of figured this might be my last day," he said this week. "We knew exactly where we were going to land. I figured that not too many people were going to live through that onslaught.
"You've got to make up your mind. You've got to make up your mind that there's only one way to go. You've got to go in, and you've got to do what you're supposed to do."
In Normandy on Friday, President Barack Obama is scheduled to join the leaders of Britain, France, Germany, Russia and other European powers to mark the 70th anniversary of the invasion that led to the Allied defeat of the Nazis and victory in World War II.
In Washington, a great-grandson of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and a granddaughter of Supreme Allied Commander Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower will gather with D-Day veterans and representatives of the Allied nations to lay wreaths at the World War II Memorial on the National Mall.
At the Charlestown retirement community in Catonsville, Swanner, now 89, will meet with fellow survivors Harper Griswold, Howard McNamara and Harold Rummel to raise a glass of Calvados, the apple brandy native to Normandy. They'll remember what they accomplished — and those they lost.
"If these guys — and all of us together — hadn't done what we did, you guys wouldn't be here today," Griswold told a pair of younger visitors this week.
Rummel, 93, from New Florence, Pa., was a gunner on a B-17 that flew two missions that day, attacking German coastal defenses on one run and rail yards on another.
McNamara, 95, from Halethorpe, was a communications officer aboard an LST, a craft that carried men and tanks to Utah Beach. Officially, the initials stood for Landing Ship, Tank. Their crews joked that they really meant Large, Slow Transport.
McNamara stresses that the fighting at Utah Beach, where Allied deaths numbered in the hundreds, was not as intense as at Omaha Beach, where they were in the thousands. Still, as his LST conveyed troops and equipment to the fighting, the Loyola College graduate wondered: "How in the world did I get into this situation?"
"I was a little apprehensive," he added.
Swanner's commanders had told him to be prepared to die. He spent six months training in Plymouth, England, with 40-mile marches and mock attacks on the moors. As members of his company ran relays, their captain would fire a machine gun a few feet behind them.
"We were told over and over that we had to succeed, because this was the only way we were going to take Europe," he said. "We couldn't fail. They told us we might be a sacrifice in our company, in our regiment. We might be a sacrifice, because the odds are against us. Terrifically against us."
On June 6, Swanner stormed ashore with the Maryland-based 115th Regiment of the 29th Infantry Division.
"It was just starting to get light enough," he remembered. "I think the Krauts could see us coming. It must have scared the hell out of them. The water as far as you could see in all directions was ships."