Muhammad, 42, viewed his woes - two failed marriages, business failures, a fizzled military career and the loss of custody of his children - as Allah's preparations for the mission, Cornell recounted Malvo as saying. Muhammad told Malvo that a divine plan brought them together, Cornell explained.

"He would be empowered by Allah to carry out this mission," Cornell said Malvo was told.

The mental programming, begun in late 2001 and continuing through the shootings in September and October last year, included making Malvo read books of racial hatred and listen day and night to tapes of Malcolm X's most virulent speeches. Muhammad had the Jamaican youth go to sleep to tapes of Bob Marley's political reggae music and speeches of racial hatred. The speeches also played while Malvo slept, Cornell said Malvo told him during 54 hours of interviews in the Fairfax County jail.

It included Muhammad converting Malvo to his form of Islam and offering a mental diet of racial injustice.

"He introduced him to the Willie Lynch speech," supposedly delivered in 1712 by a slave-owner who traveled to Virginia to tell slaveholders how to control their African chattel by setting them against each other. However, historians disagree over whether the speech is fact or folklore, Cornell said.

"He used it as proof there was a conspiracy of white people against black people," the psychologist said.

"Allah favors the black people, and at some point is going to assist or call for an uprising, a holy war" against white oppressors, Cornell said Malvo told him.

Trips to slums

Muhammad took the Jamaican teen to inner-city slums up and down the East Coast to speak with and see poor blacks, and "he would say this is a result of what white people have done to black people in this country," Cornell testified.

Malvo was unusually vulnerable because he had been chronically uprooted and beaten as a child by his mother, bullied by kids at school and not allowed to form healthy bonds with adults, the psychologist said.

Cornell diagnosed the youth as suffering from a dissociative disorder, a mental illness that would take years of therapy to overcome.

Sun staff writer Stephen Kiehl contributed to this article.