The Maryland public defender has paid at least $44,000 to mental health experts who testified last week in Malvo's defense, and the state has also paid an undisclosed amount to a mental health expert for Muhammad. The fees are part of defenses that have totaled $1.3 million through Nov. 19.
Public defenders say it would be irresponsible to provide the sniper suspects with anything less, noting the severity of the charges and the small army of prosecutors and investigators aligned against them, including Attorney General John Ashcroft.
A jury sentenced Muhammad to death last month. Malvo could face the death penalty if he is convicted.
"People tend to forget that between arrest and execution, we have something called a trial," said Stephen E. Harris, the Maryland public defender. "It has to be somewhat fair. It has to be somewhat even."
His office hired mental health experts to evaluate Muhammad and Malvo shortly after their arrest Oct. 24 last year. Even though he soon learned that both suspects would be tried in Virginia, Harris said his office had to assume that there would be Maryland trials and prepare for that possibility.
Some public officials wonder why Maryland should bear such expenses when prosecutors here are uncertain whether they will ever present the case to a jury. The officials also note that the investigation leading to the arrests has cost Maryland taxpayers several million dollars.
"It's very questionable to me that we would be spending money for the defense when there's no trial in Maryland and we don't know if there ever will be," said Montgomery County Executive Douglas M. Duncan, in whose county six of the 10 sniper killings took place. "Once there's a trial in Maryland, then it's appropriate. But until then, we should not be spending that money."
Through Nov. 19, the Muhammad defense team had submitted expenses totaling $556,855, compared with $770,305 for Malvo's defense. Those figures cover everything -- attorneys' fees, attorneys' staff, travel, investigators, mental health experts and lodging at the trial sites in Chesapeake and Virginia Beach.
Muhammad's mental health experts have spent more than 100 hours evaluating him over the past year, at a cost of tens of thousands of dollars, but none of them testified. Muhammad refused to meet with the prosecution's psychologist, so the trial judge barred the defense experts from testifying.
"We were trying to keep the costs down because we knew everybody would squawk about it," said Muhammad's lead defense attorney, Peter D. Greenspun. He said that several mental health experts worked for free and that the defense team enlisted unpaid interns from George Mason University to conduct hundreds of hours of research.
Greenspun also said that Virginia's strict rules about what information prosecutors are required to turn over to defense attorneys meant that defense investigators spent untold hours tracking down the phone numbers and addresses of people the prosecution had found earlier.
"There's really an absurdity to that," Greenspun said. "In that $500,000 is a huge, huge investigative effort."
Malvo's defense team also conducted a substantial investigation and mental health evaluation. It hired a forensic social worker to visit Malvo's relatives and friends in Antigua and Jamaica, where he was raised, to prepare a videotape aimed at reacquainting the teen-ager with his roots.