GOP lawmakers objected to any rise in taxes. Del. Wade Kach, a Baltimore County Republican, offered an amendment that would have gutted the income tax increases.
Earlier in the day, the Senate passed both the income tax increase and the teacher pension shift.
The vote on the tax measure was 27-19 as seven Democrats joined the chamber's 12 Republicans in voting no. The vote on the teacher pension shift was 33-13, with 11 Republicans and two Democrats opposing the bill.
The Senate action took place after a vigorous but civil debate during which Republican senators decried O'Malley's record of raising taxes and fees during his six years in office.
Senate Minority Leader E.J. Pipkin, an Upper Shore Republican, said the tax increases nearing approval would push the amount by which Marylanders' annual tax burden has grown under O'Malley past $2 billion.
Republican senators decided not to mount a filibuster, so Senate President Thomas V. Mike Miller was not forced to round up the 29 votes required to cut off debate.
Pipkin said a filibuster would not have had much effect in a special session, because there are no bills waiting in line behind the measure on the floor.
Some of the most forceful debate in support of the measure came from Sen. Bill Ferguson, a freshman Democrat from Baltimore who rose from his seat in the back of the chamber to read letters from students in one sixth-grade public school class. Each child described how he or she had been affected by a shooting or other act of violence.
"Nobody likes to raise taxes," Ferguson said. "But if we can improve these students' lives, these innocent children's lives, it is worth it."
Before the special session opened Monday, the Department of Legislative Services estimated that it could cost taxpayers more than $20,000 a day. But this week's session, which is expected to conclude Wednesday, could end up costing less because many members have chosen to drive home at night instead of charging the state to stay in hotels in Annapolis.
The income tax component of the $264 million tax package would spare about 86 percent of Marylanders. The 14 percent who make more than $100,000 as individuals or more than $150,000 as couples would pay from one-quarter to three-quarters of a percentage point more and also lose some of the value of their personal exemptions.
The top rate in Maryland, including local piggy-back taxes, would be 8.95 percent, which would tie Vermont and the District of Columbia for seventh-highest nationwide. Hawaii has the highest state income tax rate at 11 percent.
The package also would raise taxes on small cigars and chewable tobacco to a level comparable to the tax on cigarettes. Premium cigars would not be affected.
It also would double the fee for a first copy of a death certificate from $12 to $24. Subsequent copies would remain $12. And drivers who want to appeal a Motor Vehicle Administration decision to suspend or revoke a license would have to pay a filing fee of $150 — an increase from $125.
Under a compromise struck by the House and Senate, the shift of teacher pension costs to the counties would be phased in over four years. The cost to the jurisdictions would be partly offset by an increase in local income taxes as a result of the phase-out of personal exemptions.
O'Malley called the special session after the Assembly became mired in disputes over the budget and gambling and ended its regular session after passing a budget, but not two companion measures.
The result was a series of automatic spending cuts — described by Democrats as the Doomsday budget — that would have affected education, law enforcement and other Democratic priorities.
Republicans pointed out that even with the cuts, the Doomsday plan — which they called a "live within your means" budget — included $700 million more in spending that the current budget.
Pipkin offered an amendment that would have held spending to current levels. It was soundly rejected.
"I think it's a sad day for the state of Maryland," Pipkin said.