Inmates working

Inmates working to restore historic Mt. Auburn Cemetery. They have been working using hand tools for 3 months to help clear brush from one of the cities oldest African-American cemeteries that for years has been in disrepair. (Lloyd Fox/Baltimore Sun / November 25, 2008)

Five years after burying his father, Samuel W. Moore could no longer find the grave.

That was 1976, and Mount Auburn Cemetery, one of the oldest African-American burial grounds in the country, was overcome with stickerbushes, weeds and garbage — a fate unbecoming the scores of people buried there who were pioneers of Baltimore's black community.

After decades of neglect, interrupted occasionally by well-meaning but ultimately fruitless cleanup efforts, the cemetery in South Baltimore was officially rededicated Monday, due in large part to the labors of an unlikely group: state prison inmates.

As part of a program to put those serving time to work on meaningful projects, more than 40 prisoners have worked on the four-year effort to transform the cemetery's 34 acres.

"There's 55,000 graves here," said Gary Maynard, the secretary for the state's Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services, looking out over Mount Auburn's bright green fields. "That's 55,000 families. There are a lot of people connected to this cemetery, and now they're out here looking for graves of family they couldn't find in the past."

Since Maynard took over the department in 2007, inmates have planted 50 million oysters in the Chesapeake Bay, built a retaining wall along the C&O Canal, and restored the woods north and west of the Antietam Battlefield, among other projects.

It's a far cry from picking up trash on the side of the road. Maynard calls the efforts "restorative justice." He has sought to double the number of inmates working on such projects.

Founded in 1872, when blacks could not be interred next to whites, Mount Auburn was known as "The City of the Dead for Colored People." The cemetery, which overlooks the Middle Branch of the Patapsco River, became the final resting place for many pioneers of Baltimore's black community.

They include Lillie May Carroll Jackson, who led the Baltimore chapter of the NAACP for 35 years; Carl J. Murphy, a leading voice of the civil rights movement, and his father, John Henry Murphy, the founder of the Afro-American newspaper; and Joseph Gans, the first lightweight boxing champion.

"Successive generations of colored people around the Baltimore area have been buried at this site," said the Rev. Douglas B. Sands Sr., an area pastor who was been involved with efforts to restore the cemetery.

But over the years, Sharp Street Memorial United Methodist Church, which owns the cemetery, found it could not maintain the grounds, which cost an estimated $25,000 per year.

Over the years, caskets and human remains have emerged periodically from the earth. Members of the nearby Mt. Winans community said the cemetery's sagging fences, overgrown weeds and tilted headstones were an eyesore.

Dorothy Johnson, 70, has relatives buried at Mount Auburn.

"They didn't foresee that they need to do perpetual care, and to have the money to constantly come in there," she said. "It takes money; everything takes money."

Church members and local students would take part in cleanups, filling dozens of trash bags, only for the same problems to resurface.

Gov. Martin O'Malley recalled riding through the area before Election Day in 1999. "What is all that over there?" he asked state Sen. Joan Carter Conway. The cemetery was indiscernible.

"Mount Auburn Cemetery is the resting place of generations of Baltimore's African-American history, but until now many of those stories hae been covered and hidden by debris, by sticker bushes, by weeds and by blowing trash," O'Malley said at Monday's re-dedication ceremony. "Surely, a people united by our belief in the dignity of every human being can do better than what we had been able to do here, and now we have."

On a given day, there are more than 110 inmate crews performing labor outside the walls of a prison, according to John Rowley, who coordinates the state prison system's Public Safety Works program. Last year, they contributed more than 700,000 hours of work.

Future projects are expected to include the demolition of the old Maryland House of Corrections, which Maynard said will be the largest such project by inmates in the country, and will give inmates skills in asbestos and lead paint abatement.