One in a series of occasional articles
KILL DEVIL HILLS, N.C. - The pilot who will step onto the sands near Kitty Hawk tomorrow to re-enact the Wright brothers' first flight 100 years ago will share the centennial spotlight with an unpredictable member of the team: Mother Nature.
They need the Wright weather. At 10:35 a.m. Dec. 17, 1903, the Wrights made the world's first controlled, sustained flight in a heavier-than-air machine thanks to a gusty and frigid nor'easter that whipped up a 27 mph wind to carry them into history.
Tomorrow's forecast calls for 20 to 25 mph winds and a 60 percent chance of rain. Organizers don't expect winds to be a problem, but say a downpour similar to what occurred here Sunday would lead to a washout. A light rain won't halt the flight plan.
The re-enactment "is very weather-dependent," says Terry Queijo, 48, of Trappe, Md., who will portray Wilbur Wright, observing the takeoff. "My friends ask me all the time, 'What happens if you can't fly and all those people have come all that way?' Thank God we're not the only thing going on" that day.
Not the only thing, but certainly the most anticipated. The re-enactment will culminate the First Flight Centennial Celebration in North Carolina, a six-day affair.
If the weather cooperates, pilot Kevin Kochersberger, an associate engineering professor at the Rochester Institute of Technology, will assume the role of Orville, board a 1903 Wright Flyer replica and at 10:35 a.m., try to re-create the bicycle mechanic's historic 120-foot, 12- second hop. The weather conditions are all the more vital given that Kochersberger will be aboard the most authentic Flyer replica ever built.
The plane was copied to the smallest detail possible by the Wright Experience, a plane-restoration facility in Warrenton, Va. Wind-tunnel tests show that it is vulnerable to the same weather conditions as the original and also shares another unflattering trait: instability. (Orville once said it flew "like a cross between a bucking bronco and a roller coaster.")
"Its authenticity detracts from its ability to fly," says Nick Engler, director of the Wright Brothers Aeroplane Co. in Dayton, Ohio, which builds Wright aircraft to educate children about flight. "[The Flyer] is a very marginal airplane. The more authentic you make it, the more you narrow your chances of getting it off the ground."
Powered by a 12-horsepower engine, the plane is so marginal that aviation historians say its performance would be cramped by warm weather. It operates better in the higher density of cold air, which offers extra lift for its wood-and-cloth wings and more efficient combustion for its antiquated engine.
"Everything is a factor," says Ken Kellet, 50, an aircraft restorer and demonstration pilot for the Fantasy of Flight Museum in Polk City, Fla. "The weight of the pilot, the wind direction, the temperature. A number of factors have to be in their favor."
He should know. For the 75th anniversary of powered flight in 1978, Kellet attempted to re-enact Orville's flight at Kill Devil Hills aboard a replica he spent $3,000 building. But a flaw in his wing fabric and insufficient wind conspired. He soared 40 feet.
"It was enough to be called successful," Kellett recalls. "The press didn't fry me."
To ensure a greater chance of success, the Wright Experience team will use 120 feet of launching rail (twice as much as the Wrights used) and high-tech environmental sensors.
"If we had a 27 mph wind and 40-degree Fahrenheit like they did, we could take off just the way they did," says team researcher and mechanic Bill Hadden. "The airplane is authentic, but the atmosphere is different, so the only thing we could do is add more rail."
The additional rail length gives the plane more time to gather speed, allowing the team a broader range of weather conditions under which to take off. Case in point: During a successful test flight in 58-degree weather last month, Korchersberger flew about 100 feet in four seconds with the help of a 15 to 18 mph headwind.
The plane will take off from the exact location where the Wright brothers succeeded 100 years ago - a spot that creates its own complications.
In 1903, the site was a string of dunes known as Kill Devil Hills, then part of the fishing town of Kitty Hawk.
By Johnathon E. Briggs