VIRGINIA BEACH, Va. - From the start, from the night last fall that John Allen Muhammad and Lee Boyd Malvo were arrested as they slept at a Maryland rest stop in the Chevrolet Caprice that prosecutors later would call a killing machine, everything about the case against them was designed to reach this end.
A death sentence - and the swiftest, surest way to secure one - was the guiding factor as authorities, led by U.S. Attorney General John Ashcroft, debated where to try the two men accused of carrying out the Washington-area sniper attacks that left 10 dead and three wounded.
But while bringing a speedy resolution, the first of the two sniper trials did little to explain what prompted last fall's terrifying attacks, and attorneys for Muhammad and other experienced lawyers remained wary of a process that put the penalty ahead of all else.
"What is more unseemly than the attorney general of the United States saying, 'We're going to go to Virginia, where Mr. Muhammad will be killed?'" one of Muhammad's court-appointed attorneys, Peter D. Greenspun, said in paraphrase outside the courthouse late yesterday morning.
Maryland was the state most closely associated with last year's attacks. But top U.S. Justice Department officials determined that Virginia was the place more likely to execute both suspects. Ashcroft announced the decision to hold the first trials in Virginia, saying it was "imperative that the ultimate sanction be available for those who have committed this crime."
The Justice Department declined to comment on yesterday's outcome, calling it a local matter that was best addressed by local prosecutors.
Paul B. Ebert, the chief prosecutor for Prince William County, Va., told reporters he took no pleasure in securing the death sentence - his 13th as commonwealth's attorney for the Northern Virginia county - but he called it the right outcome.
"There are certain cases that deserve the death penalty, and we felt this was one of them," Ebert said. "We said from the get-go that the death penalty is reserved for the worst of the worst. We think Mr. Muhammad fell into that category, and we think the jury agreed."
For relatives of the victims, it brought mixed reactions. Relatives of Dean H. Meyers, who was killed as he pumped gas at a gas station near Manassas, Va., on Oct. 9, 2002, told reporters yesterday that the jury's decision brought a sense of justice.
But they acknowledged that not everyone in the family supports the death penalty.
"Our family, being religious, struggles with the issue of the death penalty, just like the rest of America does," said Larry Meyers Jr., a nephew to Dean Meyers. "The people have spoken, and now God will judge Muhammad for himself."
Far off in Mountain Home, Idaho, the father of victim Lori AnnLewis-Rivera, 25, who was shot on Oct. 3, 2002, as she vacuumed her minivan, had little patience yesterday even for a swiftly delivered death sentence.
"Let me put it this way: We were disappointed when they didn't die in a hail of bullets when they were arrested," Marion "Boots" Lewis said in a telephone interview. Lewis said he had no interest in watching the trial, but he said he would like to attend the execution when it occurs. "If they don't have room for me in the gallery, then maybe I can push the button myself."
Muhammad and Malvo were arrested on federal warrants, which put the Justice Department in the uncommon position of determining where suspects in what were essentially state murder cases would stand trial.
"It was a very unusual position that DOJ could get involved," said Michael Greenberger, a University of Maryland law professor who was a high-ranking Justice official under the Clinton administration. Once the department stepped in, he said, the outcome was mostly pre-ordained.
"Certainly, within this area, there was no dispute that Virginia was a prime choice for where to hold the trials," Greenberger said. "I think everything leading up to today was very predictable."
One factor for authorities in moving the sniper trials to Virginia was that they could be charged under a Virginia anti-terrorism law that allows prosecutors to seek the death penalty without having to prove who was the triggerman in the crime.
Virginia ranks second in the nation, behind Texas, in executions. Virginia has put to death 89 people since the death penalty was reinstated by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1976, including three this year, according to the Death Penalty Information Center in Washington.