In 2013, Nelson Mandela, the anti-apartheid leader who became South Africa's first black president and was a global symbol of sacrifice and reconciliation, died at age 95.
1782: The eighth president of the United States, Martin Van Buren, was born in Kinderhook, New York; he was the first chief executive to be born after American independence.
1791: Composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died in Vienna, Austria, at age 35.
1848: President James K. Polk triggered the Gold Rush of `49 by confirming that gold had been discovered in California.
1932: German physicist Albert Einstein was granted a visa, making it possible for him to travel to the United States.
1945: Five U.S. Navy torpedo bombers mysteriously disappeared after taking off from Fort Lauderdale, Florida, on a training mission (designated as Flight 19) with the loss of all 14 crew members.