Gardeners attack the spring with energy and enthusiasm, adding lots of color, bulbs, perennials, flowering trees and shrubs.

We wilt in the summer heat, and by fall we barely have the spirit for a pot of mums. Winter, we think, is for catalogs by the fire. It's also when you stop working in the garden and just think about it.

Not so for Christine Killian of Annapolis and Alice Ryan of Easton. Both gardeners have made it a point to create winter interest in their gardens, if for no other reason than they want something lovely to look at from the warmth of the house.

"When I worked with a designer 28 years ago," said Killian, who lives in an 18th-century-style farmhouse and takes her cues from Williamsburg, Va., and Old Sturbridge Village, "I made it clear I wanted 12 months of interest. I wasn't sure what that meant, but I knew I didn't want to look at a barren landscape."

When Alice Ryan purchased the 80-acre Knightly estate outside Easton nine years ago, of which almost 3 acres are formal gardens, she was intimidated by the work that the previous owner had done.

"Just make it your own," a gardening friend told her.

Part of that process has been to create a "winter garden walk," a path for her daily constitutional through and around the formal Edwardian gardens. It is a path lined with color, texture and blooms to warm the heart of the gardener on a cold day.

Ryan sees the color of the gold thread leaf cypress, the dynamic shape of the diadora and its upright cones, the spidery winter hazel, the swollen buds of the magnolia, a huge and rare round leaf ozmanthus and berries everywhere.

"The garden is hot as blazes in the summer," said the longtime Easton philanthropist. "It is actually wonderful in the winter."

Nancy and Pierre Moitrier of Designs for Greener Gardens in Annapolis began working with Killian about four years ago to refine her mature garden, one much smaller than the canvas Ryan has painted.

"I wanted to look out every window and see something," said Killian, who would give directions from the bedrooms upstairs.

"You need to have collections and repetitions that are legible in the winter," said Nancy Moitrier.

Even when snow covers everything, the evergreens that form the bones of both the front garden and the plantings around the water fountain give both a visible structure.

So does Pierre Moitrier's hand-hewn fence. That's because winter interest doesn't simply include plantings and vegetation, but extends to structures like the obelisk on which Killian's honeysuckle grows or an aqua metal bench that is tucked into Ryan's garden near statues of herons. Arbors and brick walkways count, too.

Adding to the scene in Killian's garden are pots planted with evergreens and violas that sit on a porch and huge stones in her rain garden. The browning tufts atop Killian's Annabelle hydrangeas catch the snow and look like ladies in hats.

All of these elements can distract the gardener from the dormancy of the winter garden. "And birds," said Killian. "I wanted trees and shrubs that would attract birds in the winter."

There can be fragrance in the winter garden, too, with sweetbox, witch hazel and winter jasmine.

Summer's abundant foliage can obscure the peeling bark of river birch and oakleaf hydrangea or the mottled bark of crepe myrtle, as well as the red stems of red twig dogwood. Clusters of red berries on winterberry and the texture of the aptly named leather leaf viburnum along with the twisted stems of Harry Lauder's walking stick become dramatic features in the winter garden.

Killian has retired from Xerox after 35 years and she plans to spend a lot more time in the garden. And there is plenty to do in the winter.

Winter is a good time to do structural pruning because the forms of the trees and shrubs and ill-placed branches are easy to see. It is a time to check for heaving roots and press them back into the earth so they will not dry out. When the ground is not saturated and vulnerable to the compression of a gardener's footprints, it is a good time to cut back the seed heads, pods and foliage from last season's perennials.