Farmland preservation effort faces defections
Howard County farmers seek to reclaim development rights
A high-end residential development off Triadelphia Road called Warfield II is adjacent to the Mullinex farm on Howard Road, which is visible behind the large house at right. (Amy Davis, Baltimore Sun / November 5, 2012)
Now, though, brothers Mike, Stephen and Mark Mullinix say they want out. Not out of farming, necessarily, but out from under a state program that limits how they can use their land — a move that worries preservationists.
"We're trying to generate income from other things, and [state officials are] cracking the whip," said 55-year-old Mike Mullinix.
Less than a year after being threatened with a $50,000 fine for leasing some of their land to a landscaping business, the Mullinix brothers have applied to terminate deals made with the state in the 1980s that bar anything but farming on the 490 acres where they raise corn, soybeans, grain and cattle. They're also trying to lift restrictions on a 140-acre tract owned by their mother.
In their application to withdraw from Maryland's agricultural land preservation program — the first time any farmer has formally asked to drop out — the brothers contend that they have been losing hundreds of thousands of dollars a year on the farms, and that farming their three properties and their mother's is "not feasible."
The deck appears stacked against the Mullinixes, given legal restrictions on farmers reclaiming development rights. But there are hundreds of others eligible to try, and some worry more farmers might be tempted if the brothers succeed.
"It's a precedent-setting case that has huge ramifications," said Cathy Hudson, president of the Howard County Citizens' Association, which opposes the farmers' bid. A public hearing on the request for the Mullinix brothers' three farms is scheduled Thursday at the Howard County fairground.
Though one of the nation's most densely populated states, Maryland has long been a national leader in farmland preservation. In 1977, it set up one of the first state programs to buy "easements" from farm owners, who voluntarily give up development rights on their land.
Since then, using revenues from real estate transfer taxes, the Maryland Agricultural Land Preservation Foundation has spent $610 million to protect 284,000 acres on more than 2,000 farms statewide. That's about equal to the total acreage of Carroll County.
But roughly three-quarters of those easements have provisions allowing landowners to leave the program after 25 years if they can show it's no longer feasible to farm their property. Officials say there are now 380 easements old enough to opt out if the landowners can meet the seemingly stringent conditions.
While some farmers have asked about — and even threatened to seek — termination of their preservation deals, none has formally requested it until now, according to Carol West, the foundation's executive director.
Howard County is where many expected the first attempted defections from the preservation program. Once mostly rural, it is now a sprawling bedroom community to Baltimore and Washington, with McMansions, churches and schools spread among crop fields and pastures in the less densely developed western portion of the county. Farmers have more and more neighbors, and in some cases frictions have sprung up over such issues as the smells and noises of an agricultural operation, or slow-moving farm equipment on winding two-lane roads.
"This is no longer western Howard; this is western Columbia," said Mike Mullinix, referring to the populous if unincorporated center of the county, which has grown from nothing in the early 1960s to nearly 100,000 people. The county's overall population has grown nearly eightfold fold in the same time.
Just across Howard Road from the Mullinix home farm is a new housing development called The Warfields II, with more than 60 lots laid out atop a hill in what the real estate sales lingo describes as a "pastoral setting." A six-bedroom, five-bath brick house built there with cathedral ceilings is listed for $1.2 million.
Land values have soared in Howard, and so have property taxes, giving many landowners reason to consider selling out to developers. By selling development rights, farmers get substantial cash payments from the government and reduce their tax bill, since the land is no longer available for housing or other uses.
The Mullinixes were among the first wave of farmers in Howard to offer the state their development rights. They sold easements on their farms in 1984, and got paid about $450,000 at the time, according to the preservation foundation's director.
But development pressures in Howard inflated land values so much there that the state often couldn't offer farmers enough to get them to sell. The county created its own, more generous preservation program, and has bought the bulk of the 21,650 acres under agricultural easements there, according to Joy Levy, administrator of the county program. And unlike most of the state's easements, the county's are permanent, meaning landowners can't lift development restrictions under any circumstances.
Mullinix said the brothers have no plans right now to sell any of their land for development. But with the community changing and the future uncertain, they want to keep their options open.
"I personally think we can save the family farm outside the program," he said. "You can do different things."