Lizzie Black Kander has been called the "Jane Addams of Milwaukee" for her tireless social service work, which included editing and publishing "The Settlement Cook Book" in 1901. The book provided more than recipes; it taught newcomers to this country how to cook and eat like Americans. Over 113 years, 40 editions and more than 2 million copies sold, "The Settlement Cook Book: The Way to a Man's Heart" remains the most famous and profitable charity cookbook ever published.
"She is the perfect ideal of an American. Something has to be done, and she does it," says Jan Longone, adjunct curator of American culinary history at the University of Michigan's Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library in Ann Arbor. "She really made a difference across America. She introduced new cuisine, new techniques and helped people assimilate."
For as Angela Fritz wrote in a 2004 article for the Wisconsin Magazine of History, the cookbook's goal "was not to catch a man but to become an 'American.' It was Lizzie Black Kander who set those goals, and in the course of achieving them created a piece of American culture that could be found in kitchens throughout the country."
Born in Milwaukee, Kander spent much of her life working with and for the city's poor and immigrant communities, notably recently arrived Jews from Russia and eastern Europe. In 1898, she began offering cooking classes to girls at the Milwaukee Jewish Mission, which merged in 1900 with another Jewish charitable group to become The Settlement. Kander served as its president for nearly 18 years, according to the biography "A Recipe for Success: Lizzie Kander and Her Cookbook."
As author Bob Kann wrote in the book, Kander noticed students were spending too much time copying down the recipes instead of cooking with them. So she suggested a cookbook be written for use in the class. When The Settlement board rejected her request for $18 (about $500 today) to publish the cookbook, Kander went out and found the money.
"The Settlement Cook Book" was "an immediate success," notes the Wisconsin Historical Society in its online page about Kander. "Combining recipes with instructions on cleanliness, food storage, and housekeeping, Kander's cookbook was an amalgam of Jewish and American traditions, all presented within a modern domestic science framework," the society wrote.
What seems surprising today is the number of non-kosher dishes in the cookbook.
"There were few so-called Jewish recipes in the book, because there was an assumption that the immigrants already knew how to prepare those," Ellen F. Steinberg, author of "From the Jewish Heartland: Two Centuries of Midwest Foodways," wrote in an email.
Besides learning to cook in the American way, readers learned how to entertain like Americans, whether that meant mixing a Manhattan cocktail or coming up with lemonade for 150 people. And then there was advice on how to live American, from properly dusting a room to setting a table to lighting a fire.
"That sounds funny to us, but for someone who didn't know how to work in someone's house, learning how to light a fire was important," says Steinberg, a food writer and cultural anthropologist living in River Forest, Ill.
A second edition followed in 1903. Kander, as Kann and Langone noted, was not satisfied with just reprinting the first edition. She corrected recipes, reorganized them and added new ones. And so it went. Kander never stopped working on the cookbook, tailoring successive editions to changes in economic conditions, technological innovations and cultural fads.
"As it got bigger, it got more encompassing, more all-American," Steinberg said. "There were recipes for everyone in there."
There were 23 editions of "The Settlement Cook Book" published before Kander died in 1940 at age 82. Proceeds from the book, as her obituary in The New York Times noted, raised the initial $75,000 needed to organize the Milwaukee Jewish Center. Sales continued to benefit the community for decades as further editions were produced.
Over the decades, "The Settlement Cook Book" became a much-beloved, essential companion to many. And that's why Lizzie Kander still matters to Kann.
"Her cookbook is still being used throughout the world. Her cookbook is still cherished with families," says the Madison, Wis., based author. "There are still animated discussions in families on which generation should inherit the family cookbook from the previous generation. … The cookbook is still alive, still being used."
From the 1903 edition of "The Settlement Cookbook." Sheridan rye is an old whiskey brand. Apricotine is an apricot liqueur.
1/3 whiskey (Sheridan rye)
1/3 Vermuth bitters
And add a dash of angostura, apricotine and orange bitters, and a slice of lemon peel. Sweeten to taste.
Potato flour cake
This recipe from the 1903 edition of "The Settlement Cookbook" calls for potato flour, which would make the sponge cake a good Passover dessert. Garnish with fresh fruit and confectioners' sugar with a kosher-for-Passover certification (or skip the confectioners' sugar).
1 3/4 cup sugar
Scant cup of potato flour
1/2 lemon (rind and juice)
Separate the whites and yolks of eggs. Beat the whites of seven eggs very stiff. To the well-beaten yolks of nine eggs and the whites of two, add the sugar and lemon juice. Beat thoroughly, add the potato flour, and beat again. Now fold in the beaten whites very carefully, and bake slowly in a moderate oven. Bake forty to fifty minutes.
Nutrition information per serving: 202 calories, 5 g fat, 1 g saturated fat, 167 mg cholesterol, 31 g carbohydrates, 9 g protein, 73 mg sodium, 2 g fiber
Note: The recipe as published is short on details. In the test kitchen, we baked the cake at 325 degrees, using a 10-inch tube pan with a removable bottom. Then we inverted the pan over an empty wine bottle to cool for 90 minutes. A thin knife was used to run around the edges of the cake before removing the pan.
To build a fire
From the 1903 edition of "The Settlement Cookbook."
It is necessary to have:
1st, Fuel. — Something to burn.
2nd, Heat. — To make fuel hot enough to burn.
3rd, Air. — To keep the fire burning.