Though he was a man of the cloth, Charles Turner Torrey went out of his way to publicly mock his enemies and alienate his ever-dwindling supply of friends. He was always short of money. He abandoned — or at least, severely neglected — his wife and two children. During a celebrated court case in the 1840s, he was described as "the most hated man in Maryland."
But a new book makes the case that the difficult, driven minister was one of the greatest abolitionists in U.S. history, although almost no one today knows his name.
In "The Martyrdom of Abolitionist Charles Torrey," a distant descendant describes how Torrey forged a branch of the Underground Railroad that ran through Baltimore and Harford County in the decade before that network's most famous conductor, Harriet Tubman, was active.
Dr. E. Fuller Torrey, a psychiatric researcher and amateur historian, credits Charles Turner Torrey with personally rescuing about 400 former slaves in less than three years.
"I first became aware of his name from my mother, who kept a list of famous Torreys," says the 76-year-old biographer, who just stepped down as executive director of the Stanley Medical Research Institute in Chevy Chase.
"There were just a few vague references in the abolitionist literature to Charles Torrey, but no full-length biography. He personally freed more slaves than any other abolitionist. This is the guy that John Brown said was one of his three major models. And yet, he's lost to history. I wanted to find out how that happened."
His weekends and evenings are spent writing; to date, he's written about 20 nonfiction books. His best-known work, "The Roots of Treason," an account of the 12 years that the poet Ezra Pound spent in an insane asylum, was a finalist for the 1983 National Book Critics Circle Award.
But ferreting out his ancestor's story, Torrey said, posed special challenges.
"Torrey's wife destroyed all of his correspondence after his death," Torrey said. "There were bits of information scattered all over the place. It was almost like a treasure hunt, where one clue leads you to another clue and another."
In the following edited and condensed conversation, the author reveals some of the nuggets that his search unearthed:
Why is Charles Torrey so little known today?
Until I wrote this book, I thought history was history. It never occurred to me that history is written by the people who live long enough to tell it.
The most famous abolitionist reformer of the day was William Lloyd Garrison. He and Torrey really hated each other, and Garrison just outlived him.
Garrison, the poor boy, felt put down by Torrey, who had come from a well-respected family and was well-educated. I think they both looked down on each other and both had real edges to their personalities. When they didn't like someone, they let you know.
Torrey was dead by 1846 at the age of 32, and Garrison lived until 1879. Most of Torrey's supporters also died early, while Garrison's had long lives. When his sons wrote their definitive, three-volume biography of their father, they wrote Torrey out of it.
Was Torrey indeed "the father of the Underground Railroad," which the book says was how he was known at that time?
It depends on what you mean by the Underground Railroad. When Torrey started his abolitionist activities, there was an existing network of people who passed on escaping slaves from place to place. It was especially well developed in Ohio.
What Torrey did was to organize a slave wagon. He didn't just wait for people to appear at his door. He recruited them and personally drove them to freedom in Philadelphia and Albany. He claims that he ran about 400 slaves on the railroad in 21/2 years. No one had ever done that before.
Why did he concentrate his activities in Baltimore and Washington?