Levine will also serve as senior vice president of MedStar Health, a 10-hospital system in Maryland and Washington, D.C.
He succeeds Dennis Pullin, who left after eight years to become the president and CEO of Virtua, a New Jersey-based health care system.
Levine joined the MedStar system in 2010 as a rheumatologist at MedStar Good Samaritan Hospital and vice chairman of strategic growth and research in the department of medicine for that hospital and MedStar Union Memorial Hospital.
In 2014, he became vice president of medical affairs at Harbor Hospital and two years later added MedStar Franklin Square Medical Center to his portfolio.
Health system officials called him a strong clinical leader.
Levine had been an assistant professor of medicine and researcher at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine before joining MedStar. He earned his medical degree from Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons and completed his internship and residency at Johns Hopkins Hospital, with a fellowship in rheumatology at Hopkins.